The tâs is another percussion instrument of Kurdistan's Dervishes played alongside the daf at the climax of the Samâ. The tâs is constructed from a metallic bowl and covered with skin, stretched tight by belts on the sides of the bowl. The tâs is placed on the ground and played by two wide leather straps. This instrument is also played during eclipses and ritual ceremonies for rain on the rooftops in Kurdistan. The daf is a type of frame drum that is depicted in many Persian miniatures and has reliefs from centuries ago. Although it appears at first sight to be a relatively simple instrument, the daf has the potential of producing intricate rhythmic patterns and sounds. The daf is equipped with metal rings on the inside which add a jingle effect to the sound. The frame is covered with goat-skin.